Background of the Problem

The traditional concept of personnel administration has gradually been replaced with various styles of human resource management (Cardinal 2017). This elevates the importance of strategic integration of new leadership styles which may result in effective management of employees (Flynn et al., 2016). Gallup (2015) conducted a recent study that explored the engagement of workers within an organization discovered only one-third of workers are satisfied with their current job (Sahu et al., 2018). Employees account for a lack of open and constant communication, trust and value as the reasons for limited engagement. Thus, organizations are seeking opportunities to better understand leadership styles that increase individuals’ core-self evaluation and organizational citizenship behavior to increase overall effectiveness (Flynn et al., 2016; Ghaderi et al., 2021).


Determining the relationship between leadership style and core self-evaluation, it would be important for in-depth studies to be undertaken with the aim of providing valid reason why leaders need to engage in core self-evaluation such that they can be able to improve on their leadership approaches. In essence, there is a need to validate the findings that correlate servant leadership with core self-evaluation (Castano 2017). With the recent advances in non-traditional leadership approach, there exists a gap, through research literature, that outlines lack of recognition on the importance of leadership traits and behaviors that contributes to leadership style in the business environment. Lack of core self-evaluation has become evident among several leaders that results in poor employee performance within an organization.  Various organizational outcomes have been predicted based on transformational leadership theories, however further empirical research is needed to determine the impact of leadership characteristics and organizational citizenship behavior (Chen et al., 2018).

Evolution of problem

Literature identifies a problem pertaining to the relationship between leadership style and core self-evaluation as well as organizational citizenship behavior. This problem is demonstrated through lack of effective leadership approaches that result in poor organization achievements. For organizations that are trying to adopt a more effective leadership approach, there has been a lack of core self-evaluation among leaders, which culminates in weak implementation of the approach. There is a need to adequately articulate the relationship that exists between core self-evaluation, organizational citizenship behavior, and leadership style such that organizations can be able to improve on their leadership approaches (Newman et. al. 2017).

  1. Professional and/or broader societal need identified in the literature: From the study findings, leaders will be able be able to understand the need to support their followers as well as putting their followers’ interests first. Secondly this research will be important in building the research body in the context of leadership and leadership styles. Moreover, the researcher will be able to gain more knowledge in the research approaches as well knowledge from previous research studies in the context of leadership style and organizational citizenship behavior.
  2. Directions for future research based on limitations, recommendations, and/or conflicting findings: Various organizational outcomes have been predicted based on transformational leadership theories, however further empirical research is needed to determine the impact of leadership characteristics and organizational citizenship behavior (Chen et al., 2018).
  3. Synthesis of broader topics to study in combination: Research conducted focuses one side of the leader-member exchange (leaders or followers), deducing that it is valid. However, this study seeks to focus on all component of the leader-member exchange (Akgunduz et al., 2018).
  4. Theme 1: Follower’s character traits may heighten or diminish the effects of leadership. Servant leaders dedicate time to develop their followers by serving as role models who provide encouragement, include followers in decision making, model proper ethical behavior, and emphasize the importance of serving the larger community in which they are members (Newman et al., 2017).
  5. Theme 2: Followers’ perception of a leader’s value can impact productivity. When followers trust and associate positive traits to the leader an enigmatic relationship develops in which their values are compatible, and the leader is viewed as a role model (Collinson, 2020).
  6. Theme 3: Leadership may have a positive influence on individuals’ performance and organizational behavior. Servant leadership’s principle is that servant leaders’ effect organizational outcomes by nurturing followers’ development and welfare, specifically through the process of filling followers’ needs (Chiniara & Bentein, 2016).
  7. Theme 4: Without care and support, employees are likely to be less motivated in their work environment as they feel they are not cared for. This results in low performance among the latter and therefore poor organization performance (Nassif et al., 2020).
  8. Theme 5: Organizational Citizenship Behavior is behavior affected by an individual’s motivation and cognitive process. Choosing to participate in organizational citizenship behaviors is influenced by persons objective, goals, priorities, values, environment and characteristics. Li et. al. found that followers organizational citizenship behavior was positive when leadership empowered followers. Perceived empowerment by followers increased self-motivation which resulted in positive organizational citizenship behavior (Jia et al., 2018).
    1. Organizational Citizenship Behavior Checklist (OCB-C) (Spector, 2021) will measure the dependent variable, Organizational Culture. The combination of learning and work to ensure the organization, individuals and groups improve. It is the existence of the organization (Yang et al., 2004). Its original instrument consisted of 42 questions but has since been redesigned to 36 items and then to 20 items (Fox et al., 2012).  The score of organizational citizenship behaviors is based on the frequency of employees to engage in extra-roles and discretionary behaviors. A Likert scale will have options that range from 1= never to 5 = Every day (Spector et al., 2010). It is interval as it measures non-mathematical ideas such as frequency and satisfaction (Kruskal, 1958).
  9. A modified questionnaire from the multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ) (Van Jaarsveld et al., 2019) will measure the independent variable, Leadership Style. This instrument is a combination of different characteristics, traits and behaviors used by leaders for interacting with subordinates (Mitonga-Monga & Coetzee, 2012). The frequency of leader performance based on 5 levels using a Likert scale. The options will be never, little, occasionally, often and always (Ali Alsheikh et al., 2018). It is interval as it measures non-mathematical ideas such as frequency and satisfaction (Kruskal, 1958). The use of MLQ required obtaining a license from Mind Garden which is the organization with rights to MLQ assessment. Different scholars and practitioners had proved the reliability of MLQ. For example, Pastor Alvarez et al. (2019) identified the reliability level of the MLQ to be .96 while Estiri et al. (2017) determined the reliability level for the MLQ was .98. Batista-Foguet (2021) shared a similar .86 rating of reliability to the .82 found by Khan et al. (2014).
  10. All the teachers teaching at this grade will be eligible to participate in the study. The researcher obtained a list of all the teachers teaching 9-12 classroom in a rural school district in New England. The teachers will be given random numbers which will be later used in selecting teachers to the sample. The minimum sample required for the study in determining the existence of the relationship is 68. The number was arrived at after calculating using the G Power software where the power was set at 0.8, and the effect size was estimated at 0.15. In this computation, the alpha level was set at 0.05.
  11. Step 1: The recruitment of participants will take place using digital platforms. In this case, the researcher will obtain email addresses from the school district human resource and technology department.
  12. Step 2: An initial email will be sent to the target population  will explain the objectives of the study as well as information on how access and completion of the questionnaire, how long the survey will take and how the data will be used to assist school districts in hiring individuals in leadership positions that will move their organization forward.
  13. Step 3: Once consent forms are received a follow up email with a link to access the OCB-C and MLQ will be sent to all willing participants. The participants will follow these links and complete the questionnaires. Surveys will be formatted using The information collected using this platform will be protected through the systems security and no identifiable information of participants will be obtained.
  14. Ethical Concerns:
  15. a) What risks, if any, are present? How will you mitigate these risks?
  16. The researcher and participants will not interact allowing the researcher limits bias. Using statistical methods to analyze the data will help maintain objectivity, which ensures strength and credibility of the study (Kuhn, 1996). The considerations are in alignment with the positivist/postpositivist tradition. Based on the Belmont Principles for conducting ethical research with human beings, the principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice (Parker et al., 2019).
  17. b) What benefits are there to participants? Participants were able to access and fill out the online questionnaires at a time and place that was convenient to them, and they were assured that they could quit their participation in the study at any time, with no penalty assessed against them for leaving the study.