Antibiotic Resistance Questions

Please answer the following questions and then submit this completed document to the “Assignments” folder in D2L. Please post only these questions and your answers, not the several pages detailing the lab exercise.

  1. Why did we need to perform a serial dilution in Part I instead of simply inoculating 1 milliliter of the initial culture into pour plates and counting the resulting colonies?
  2. Given the data above, what is the concentration of bacteria in the initial culture (cells/ml)?
  3. In Part II, one pair of plates contained a single colony, whereas the other pair of plates contained six colonies. How many mutations were necessary to produce the six streptomycin-resistant colonies? Explain.
  4. Do you agree of disagree with the following statement. Explain. “Mutations conferring antibiotic resistance occur in order to protect bacteria from antibiotics.”
  5. Which of the nine plates in Part III is/are controls and which are experimental plates? Explain.
  6. Doubly resistant bacteria are present in the center plate in the bottom row. How do we know that these doubly resistant bacteria are the result of conjugation and not the result of new mutations?
  7. Bacteria resistant to multiple types of antibiotics are becoming significant health care issues. In as much detail as possible, describe why this problem has arisen.
  8. I went to a highly regarded public high school, but my biology instructor failed to teach evolution in this course. Studies have shown that this is the case in approximately 1/3 of all high school biology courses in Minnesota. Why do you think so many high school biology instructors fail to cover evolution in their courses? How do you think this contributes to the problem of antibiotic resistance?

9. Design an experiment to produce bacteria resistant to the antibiotics ampicillin, streptomycin, a d tetracycline.


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