Information and values are two issues that every decision-making leader must tackle.




Government administrators will rarely have all the information relevant to a decision. This information has a cost and may lead to a limited search for information. Leaders may also receive more information than they are able to understand.




Government leaders must also contend with public values and their own personal values. Leaders must examine whether their opinion aligns with the values of their agency.




In at least 700 words:


Briefly define or describe information and values in relation to leadership theories in public administration.

Can personal value preferences cause conflicts in the decision-making process?

 If so, what can leadership do to manage these conflicts?

What can leaders do to ensure information being received is valid?

Should leaders make decisions based on educated guesses, hunches, or “going with the gut”?