Compare Walter Hirtle’s, Mark Johnson’s and Andrew Ortony’s views of metaphor.

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Johnson’s view suggests that we might imagine a hypothetical culture that involves viewing arguments as a war that has no winner or loser. In addition, no sense of attacking or defending, losing ground or gaining is expected. On the other hand, Walter shows that distinct lexical senses can be observed and their relations can be understood by focusing on the use of the verbs and nouns of the speakers. Andrew’s view suggests that a metaphor could be used to describe the quality of an emotional state…

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