This assignment is divided into two tasks. Tasks1 is a research survey report where as Task2 is related to programming. The tasks are described as follows:

1.Write a report on the sustainability in the IT industry or how IT can be used to make other industries or life in general more sustainable. The report should be of 800 words, and it should use UWE Harvard referencing.                 [Marks 40]

2.Adder circuits play key role in the computations. A logical circuit for a half adder performs addition on single bits. It produces two bits a sum (S) and a carry(C). The circuit and the truth table can be given in the Figure 1(a) and Figure 1(b) respectively.          




Input Pins Output Pins

A B Sum (S) Carry (C)

0 0 0 0

0 1 1 0

1 0 1 0

1 1 0 1


(a) (b)

Figure 1 (a) Illustration of logic circuit (b) Truth table for half Adder

Similarly, a full adder is a digital circuit that adds three single bits. It takes two input pins A, B along with a carry-in (Cin) from previous stage. It has the similar output pins Sum (S) and Carry-out (Cout). It can be constructed by the combination of two half adders as shown in Figure2




Input Pins Output Pins

A B Cin S Cout

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 0

0 1 0 1 0

0 1 1 0 1

1 0 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 1

1 1 0 0 1

1 1 1 1 1


(a) (b)

Figure 2 (a) Illustration of logic circuit (b) Truth table for 1-bit Full Adder



In similar manner 4-bit adder can be designed by the combination of 1-bit full adders.  

Considering the above discussing about adders, perform the following sub-tasks:

a.Design 4-bit combinational adder and subtracter and simulate it using C            [Marks 20]

b.Design 1-bit adder using flip-flops by using the concepts of finite state machine (FSM).          [Marks 15]

c.Design FSM for 8-bit adder using sequential flip-flops and simulate it Using C.           [Marks 25]


C/C++ programming, Microsoft Word

Google Scholar (

IEEE Xplore (



The report and the coding tasks along with the required description must placed into a .zip file and the hard copy should be submitted  

Marking Scheme

1.For Task1 every student is required to produce a report that must be different from others. It should show a thorough study of high quality research journals and conferences. The marks will be awarded for:  

Understanding the subject

Proper use of headings and sub-headings in the structure

Correct Terminology

It should be phrased in third person

References (must be peer reviewed journals and conferences)

Citations         Marks [0 -40]






2.Task 2 has 60 marks and these are distributed in the following table.  

Sub-Task No. Task Evaluation Poor Average Excellent Marks 30%

a. C code (Efficient logic, use of loops and conditional statements) and testing



c. Construction of Adder using flip-flops, need to use finite state machine     [0-15]

d. I.8-bit adder design, FSM table and diagram,  

II.C code (Efficient logic, use of loops and conditional statements) and testing