describe who the participants will be along with the sampling procedures. III. Data Sources and Instruments: beginning with formal instruments (e.g., standardized tests) and moving towards informal approaches (e.g., unstructured or informal observations), describe each of the data collection instruments and approaches that will be used to gather data. Write a paragraph for each instrument or approach and provide information about the name of the instrument, the author and the year it was created as part of a subheading