Institutional discrimination refers to prejudicial practices and policies within institutions that result in the systematic denial of resources and opportunities to members of subordinate groups. This form of discrimination is maintained by the laws, organizational guidelines, or traditions of an institution

Individual discrimination is the prejudicial treatment of an individual based on his or her membership in a certain group whereas institutionalized discrimination refers to discrimination embedded in the procedures, policies, or objectives of large organizations against an individual or group of individuals.


Groups neg- atively affected by institutional bias include virtually any group that experiences prejudice and discrimination at the individual level, such as groups based on race and ethnicity, nationality, sex, religion, sexual orientation, age, disability, body size


Examples. Examples of institutionalized discrimination include laws and decisions that reflect racism, such as the Plessy vs. Ferguson U.S. Supreme Court case. The verdict of this case ruled in favor of separate but equal public facilities between African Americans and non-African Americans.