Individual methods which are available within an ethnographic study include: participant observation, interviews and surveys. All of these ethnographic methods can be very valuable in gaining a deeper understanding of a design problem

Ethnography, simply stated, is the study of people in their own environment through the use of methods such as participant observation and face-to-face interviewing. … Classic ethnographic research involves a detailed description of the whole of a culture outside of the country of origin of the researcher

 

A classic example of ethnographic research would be an anthropologist traveling to an island, living within the society on said island for years, and researching its people and culture through a process of sustained observation and participation