The last few decades have seen tremendous transformation in the way learning is delivered in the classroom. Technology has become an integral part of the content delivery process. As such, a diverse range of stakeholders such as the International Society for Technology in Education and the National Council of the Accreditation of Teacher Education advocate for the use of technology in education (Daher, Baya’a, Anabousy, 2018). These bodies suggest that students should be provided with opportunities to engage in technology-supported activities that enhance their learning experiences. Furthermore, all other aspects of teaching and learning mathematics at all levels have been encouraged.
Existing evidence from literature and national recommendations show that the use of technology in mathematics classrooms can enhance the assimilation of mathematics concepts and improve achievement in those concepts (Daher, Baya’a, Anabousy, 2018). In addition, the use of technology has been suggested to improve the learners’ classroom experiences.
It has been found that the use of technology helps learners to visualize mathematics, enhance their engagement with learning strategies, change their attitudes towards mathematics, verify conjectures, and build confidence in their ability to solve mathematical problems. However, other studies have found that despite the evidence of the usefulness of technology in teaching mathematics, technology has not been widely adopted in K-12 mathematics classrooms (Wanjala, 2016). Consequently, there appears to be a disconnect between research, national recommendations, and the actual application of technology in mathematics classrooms. The slow pace of adoption of technology use in mathematics classrooms may be associated with mathematics teachers’ practice challenges, which must be addressed to integrate technology fully in mathematics instruction.
It has been recommended that teachers of mathematics should be encouraged to incorporate technology as part of teaching or instruction. According to Brasiel (2016) and colleagues, pre-service teachers of mathematics for the elementary and middle school levels should be taught how to incorporate technology in mathematics instruction, as well as on the importance of improving the integration of technology at all levels of education (Brasiel, et.al, 2016). This chapter reviews the fundamental information that provides the reader with needed understanding on how technology in mathematics classrooms can enhance the assimilation of mathematics concepts among K-12 learners.
This qualitative descriptive study will utilize self-administered open-ended questionnaires that will be provided to all respondents (Urbina, Polly, 2017). Each respondent will be served with a similar set of questions. The assumption will be that all respondents are literate and can read and write. Reports and government publications will be used as a secondary resource to supplement primary data.
The research questions that will drive this Quantitative Research study include:
- What are the attitudes and perceptions of leadership on the skills integration and learning performance in a mathematics classroom?
- What are the different factors affecting tech skills integration in a mathematics classroom?
- What are the different strategies for integrating tech skills in a mathematics classroom?
The problem this study will focus on is, to what degree technology in mathematics classrooms can enhance the assimilation of mathematics concepts among K-12 learners.
The contents of this chapter include (a) the background, context, and theoretical framework that will guide this study. (b) We will also review the statement of the problem, (c) the purpose of the study, (d) and the three research questions that will guide this study (Urbina, Polly, 2017). It will include the (e) rationale, (f) relevance and (g) significance of the study and will review the (h) nature of the study, to include an analysis of the target population. Lastly, the chapter will conclude with a (i) review of technical terms derived from the literature, (j) the assumptions, limitations and delimitations, and a brief overview of the organization of the remainder of the research.
Background, Context, and Theoretical Framework
The possibilities technology can offer continue to intrigue both mathematics educators and mathematicians (Wanjala, 2016). There has been a dramatic development in technology since the creations of the mainframe computer, the calculator, the microcomputer, and the graphing calculator. Mathematics educators and mathematicians, however, have begun feeling that technology could have significant impacts on content delivery with an emphasis on implementation at school-level and university-level mathematics.
In the early years of adopting technology into school mathematics education, computing was applied to mathematical learning through Computer Assisted Instruction. This involved the design of individualized learning modules that were congruent with the student’s pace in order to promote more active learning of mathematical concepts. The PLATO project is one of the most well-known initiatives.
The advancement in programming, especially concerning BASIC and Logo, played a significant contribution to the technology-based approaches to mathematics instruction and learning (Brasiel, et.al, 2016). The development of the Logo programming language, due to the contribution of Feurzig and Papert as well as Papert, played a major part in the approach to mathematics instruction and learning. Influenced by the theories of Piaget, took keen interest in young children’s learning activities and ways through which computers and technology, in general, could enhance those learning activities in his article, Teaching Children to be Mathematicians Versus Teaching About Mathematics, emphasized the importance of enabling children to do mathematics rather than just learning about it. Promoted the mathematical problem-solving abilities of students through programming in BASIC. Also, promoted programming in BASIC for students from the first grade to enhance their competence in mathematics.