5. Answer any four (4) questions only.

6. All questions carry equal marks.



1. Why are there differences in voter participation across states?

2. In what major ways can citizens participate in their state and local governments?

3. Discuss some innovative ways and programs states can use to increase civic participation in government.

4. What instruments or techniques have states and/ or political parties used to suppress or limit the ability of their citizens to vote?

5. Discuss the provisions and impacts of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 in the enfranchisement of racial minorities.

6. Discuss the impacts of Shelby V. Holder (2013) of U.S. Supreme Court ruling on the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the ability of minorities to vote.

7. Define primary election and discuss types or variations of elections.

8. Prior to the passage of and implementation of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, what types of techniques and practices were use or deployed by the states to undermine the political participation of African Americans in most of the southern States during the Jim Crow era?


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