Religious freedom plays a crucial role in positively supporting job satisfaction (Neubert & Halbesleben, 2015). It has become a well-known fact that employees will perform better in their duties when they work in a free environment where their religious beliefs and practices are permitted and respected (Novitasari et al., 2020). In modern workplaces, organizations have employees from multicultural and multi-religious backgrounds, so managers should make sure that their workplace supports those who are religious. This study focuses on whether religiosity, affects job satisfaction. The research involved quantitative research method to establish the effect of one variable over the other variable. It used convenience sampling and a five-point Likert scale questionnaire to gather data for analysis. The results from Pearson correlation shows that religiosity does not affect job satisfaction. Furthermore, research from previous literature will provide a base for this research. This study created advanced knowledge, educated the public on this issue and provided valuable information for organizations, psychologists, and researchers.
Keywords: Organizational religiosity, job satisfaction, employers, employers.
The Relationship between Organizational Religiosity and Job Satisfaction
Religion and job satisfaction play a great role in the well-being of a person. Paloutzian & Park (2021) defined religion as a belief system, practices, beliefs about God, participation in religious worship, etc. On the other hand, job satisfaction refers to the employees’ feelings about their job situation depending on their present and past experiences in their occupation (Macdonald & Maclntyre, 1997). Macdonald and Maclntyre (1997) stress that evaluating employees’ job satisfaction is crucial because it is highly associated with important outcomes in the workplace. Therefore, religion and religious beliefs are vital aspects of human life, Duffy (2006) as many researchers have studied how there is a positive correlation between spirituality and job satisfaction Bednarczuk, (2019) and job satisfaction and religious commitment (Ghazzawi et al., 2016; Neubert and Halbesleben, 2014). However, religiosity is understudied in many factors, primarily when related to job satisfaction (Koenig & Büssing, 2010).
Different studies have been done on the impact of religious beliefs on the feelings of individuals about their jobs. For example, Ghazzawi et al. (2016) collected data from 741 participants working in hotels, banks, non-profit organizations, government agencies, hospitals, and employed graduate learners from five major religions. Out of the sample, 54.1% were Christians, 9% were Buddhists, 9.3% were Muslims, 4.2% were Hindus, and 3.4% were Jews. The authors concluded that religious commitment affects job satisfaction and that people from different beliefs with the same levels of spiritual commitment had different job satisfaction levels. Similarly, Neubert and Halbesleben (2014) evaluated the relationship between spiritual calling with organizational commitment and job contentment. They used a sample of 771 adults from the US. According to the researchers, spiritual calling has a positive relation to job contentment and organizational commitment. They also found that organizational commitment is strong when job contentment and spiritual calling are strong (Neubert & Halbesleben, 2014).
Furthermore, the research conducted by Duffy (2006) researched the topic by investigating the impact of spirituality and religion on career development. The researcher established that religion and spirituality positively correlate to career values, job contentment, and the self-efficacy of career decisions. Another scholar named Bednarczuk (2019) investigates how organizational religiosity has become important as more companies integrate it into their workplaces, which is evident by increased empowerment programs, prayer meetings, and bible studies. In addition, this study also investigates how religious orientation affects an individual’s job satisfaction. The author concludes that religious orientation improves job satisfaction because employees who follow religious dogma exhibit the characteristics of contentment in their personal lives. The previous study by Neubert and Halbesleben (2014) supports Bednarczuk’s findings, explaining that religious orientation affects an individual’s attitudes and behaviors.
Lepold et al. (2018) assert that measuring job satisfaction using surveys has many advantages to the organization than any other approach. One of them is that it helps in reaching a large number of employees within a short time. As a result, job satisfaction is measured using the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) scale developed in 1992. According to Koenig and Büssing (2010), (DUREL) measures the primary aspects of religiosity, including intrinsic, non-organizational, and organizational religious activity. Using the (DUREL) scale to measure organizational religiosity, the researcher will understand this aspect of the participant’s job satisfaction (Koenig & Bussing, 2010).
The study aims to determine the predictability of job satisfaction using organizational religiosity. Past studies indicate a positive relationship between religious commitment and job contentment, as well as between spirituality and job satisfaction. However, organizational religiosity is studied less often when it comes to the employee’s job satisfaction (Bednarczuk,
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