Explain and critically analyze the approach of the courts to refugee claims involving danger from non-state actors, considering in particular people escaping a violent partner or family members. Suggested starting points to include but please consider more sources for the 10 references. •

 R v SSHD ex p Shah and Islam [1999] 2 AC 629 • Helene Lambert “The Conceptualization of ‘Persecution’ by the House of Lords: Horvath v. Secretary Of State for the Home Department” (2001) 13(1/2)International Journal of Refugee Law pp. 16 – 31 (available using a ‘Journals’ search in the Lexis Library legal database) 

• Siobhan Mulley “Domestic violence asylum claims and recent developments in international human rights law: a progress narrative?” (2011) 60(2) International and Comparative Law Quarterly pp. 459-484 (available from the Westlaw legal database) The word limit includes tables, figures and quotations, but does NOT include references in footnotes or the bibliography.

 Essay needs to have an introduction, a main body and a conclusion. In your introduction, we recommend that you:- •

Discuss the main ideas and questions which are raised by the title and which your essay will investigate • Identify any assumptions or opinions in the title which your essay will evaluate 

• Provide a summary of your structure •