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Sampling and Collecting Quantitative and Qualitative Data

It is often not possible or practical to study an entire population, so researchers draw samples from which they make inferences about a population of interest. In quantitative research, where generalization to a population is typically valued, a researcher’s ability to make such inferences is only as good as the sampling strategy she or he uses to obtain the sample. Once an appropriate sample has been obtained, data collection should involve valid and reliable measures to ensure confidence in the results, as well as the ability to generalize the research outcomes. Although generalization is typically not a goal in qualitative research, sampling is just as important in qualitative and mixed methods research, as is obtaining reliable and valid results. Indeed, for quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research, sampling strategies and accurate data collection methods are critical aspects of the research process.

Specific methods of data collection (e.g., surveys, interviews, observations) produce specific types of data that will answer particular research questions, but not others; so here too, as covered in previous weeks, the research questions inform how the data will be obtained.  Furthermore, the method used to collect the data may impact the reliability and the validity of that data.

For this Discussion, you will first consider sampling strategies. Then, you will turn your attention to data collection methods, including their strengths, limitations, and ethical implications. Last, you will consider measurement reliability and validity in the context of your discipline.

With these thoughts in mind, if your last name starts with A through L, use Position A. If your last name starts with M through Z, use Position B.

Position A: Probability sampling represents the best strategy for selecting research participants.

Position B: Nonprobability (or purposive) sampling represents the best strategy for selecting research participants.

By Day 4

Post a restatement of your assigned position on sampling strategies. Explain why this position is the best strategy for selecting research participants. Support your explanation with an example and support from the scholarly literature. Next, select a data collection method (e.g., surveys, interviews, observations) and briefly explain at least one strength and at least one limitation. Then, identify a potential ethical issue with this method and describe a strategy to address it. Last, explain the relationship between measurement reliability and measurement validity using an example from your discipline.

Be sure to support your Main Issue Post and Response Post with reference to the week’s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA Style.

Teddlie, C., & Yu, F. (2007). Mixed methods sampling: A typology with examples. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1), 77–100.

Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology with Examples by Teddlie, C., & Yu, F., in Journal of Mixed Methods Research, Vol. 1/Issue 1. Copyright 2007 by Sage Publications Inc. Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications Inc. via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Collins, K. M. (2007). A typology of mixed methods sampling designs in social science research. The Qualitative Report, 12(2), 281–316. Retrieved from http://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol12/iss2/9

Drost, E. A. (2011). Validity and reliability in social science research. Education Research and Perspectives, 38(1), 105–124.

Document: Annotated Bibliography Template with Example (Word document)

Required Media

1. Explain why this position is the best strategy for selecting research participants.
2. Support your explanation with an example and support from the scholarly literature.
3. Select a data collection method (e.g., surveys, interviews, observations) and briefly explain at least one strength and at least one limitation.
4. Identify a potential ethical issue with this method and describe a strategy to address it.
5. Explain the relationship between measurement reliability and measurement validity using an example from your discipline.