The scientist–practitioner approach is important in the treatment of patients because patients are

a. treated by clinicians who have developed models of

human behavior

b. taught how to evaluate research and choose treatments

c. treated by clinicians who use empirical research to guide

the treatment process

d. able to help advance psychological research by being

research subjects


 The biological model seeks knowledge of abnormal behavior

by studying

 the biology of the body, particularly the brain

 biological scarring and structural abnormalities

 brain morphology as it affects bodily processes

. neuroimaging techniques


. Biological scarring, or the process whereby years of living with

a disorder causes changes in the brain, demonstrates the

 interaction among biopsychosocial factors

. importance of the psychoanalytic model

c. interaction between psychological and social factors

. significance of downward drift