Vicarious conditioning is different from other types of conditioning

in that it involves

a. shaping rather than punishment

b. learning without punitive consequences

c. learning without actually doing a behavior

d. acquiring new behaviors by practice


The cognitive model is based on the idea that our

a. perceptions and interpretations of events are more

important than the events themselves

b. cognitive abilities differ depending on our developmental


c. brains are permanently affected by external events

d. intelligence level determines which disorders we are

prone to