Why does ethical pluralism—the wide variety of ethical perspectives—pose a
challenge for religious ethics? Which of the responses to such pluralism dis-
cussed in this chapter do you find most convincing?
5. Is belief in God necessary for life to have ultimate meaning?
6. Why do some claim that ethics must be totally relative if there is no God? Briefly
outline and assess Kai Nielsen’s response to this claim.
7. Those theists who consider the Torah or Bible to be a trustworthy source of
information about God must grapple with the seemingly questionable behavior
sometimes attributed to God in these texts. Which of the responses discussed
did you find most convincing? Why?
8. What is “virtue ethics”? Do you think “virtue” or “duty” is the more basic eth-
ical concept? Why?
9. Do you think that religious individuals behave more ethically than nonreligious
individuals? If not, is the opposite true?
10. Is the world, on balance, a better place because of the role religion has played in
ethical behavior?
11. Do you agree with religious feminists that the traditional ethical systems have
been (continue to be) male-biased? Why or why not?