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The first section of questions are general questions about the research aims and design:

1. Write a brief (200 words maximum) rationale for this research, citing relevant literature and state the aim of this study.

2. Write a non-directional hypothesis for part 1 of the study, which aimed to examine the effect of parental behaviors on children’s reported pain.

3. Why is a non-directional hypothesis more appropriate for part 1 of the study?

4. Write a directional hypothesis for part 2 of the study, which aimed to examine the relationship between parental catastrophizing and children’s reported pain.

5. Why is a directional hypothesis more appropriate for part 2 of the study?

Section 2: The next section of questions focuses on Part 1 of the study:

6. Produce a table, presenting descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) for part 1 of the experiment. This table should be presented in APA format.

7. Is part 1 an independent groups design, or a repeated measures design? Could you address the same research question with the other design and if so how would the study be conducted/what would it entail? Explain. (6 marks)

8. Produce two frequency histograms for the pain scores variable for each parental behavior. Copy and paste the histogram below; what does it tell us about the distribution of the variable? What other methods should you use in addition to the histograms to check for normality? Please reports these additional checks below and explain/justify whether the assumption has been met

9. Create a data set in JASP to analyze the data from part 1 of the study. Perform an appropriate t-test to see whether there is a difference in children’s reported pain during venipuncture based on parental support behaviors. Take a screenshot of your data and the complete analysis output and add it below. (10 marks)

10. Report the results of your t-test below, using APA format.

11. The t-test you conducted is a parametric test. In what circumstances would you not be able to use a t-test and instead resort to a non-parametric version of the test? What would this non-parametric test be considering the specific t-test you used in this workbook?

12. Based on the obtained result would you accept or reject the null hypothesis. Justify your answer. (2 marks)

13. Using your t-test, write a one sentence statement indicating what conclusion you can draw from the result. (2 marks)

Section 3: The next section of questions focuses on part 2 of the study:

14. For part 2, set up a data set in JASP which will allow you to explore the relationship between parental catastrophizing and children’s subjective pain reports. Perform a correlation analysis to examine the relationship between parental catastrophizing and children’s reported pain using JASP. Take a screenshot of your completed analysis and paste it below.

15. What type of a correlation analysis is this: Parametric or non-parametric? Explain why this particular correlation was performed and not the other.

16. Report the results of your correlation analysis below, using APA format.

17. Using your correlation analysis, write a one sentence statement indicating what conclusion you can draw from the result. You should comment on the significance, strength, and direction of the relationship and what it means in plain language. Can it be stated that parental catastrophizing causes how children respond to pain. (5 marks)

Section 4: The final section of questions focuses on drawing overall conclusions from the study, and suggestions for future research

18. Write a brief (200 words maximum) overall conclusion for the study, taking into account the results of both part 1 and part 2, and contextualizing the results using relevant literature. You can re-use your references from question 1 where appropriate.

19. In order to find out more about why parents adopt specific behaviors, and to investigate what kind of behaviors they believe are most effective in reducing children’s reported pain, the researchers decide to undertake a follow-up study using a qualitative interview approach. Why is this approach most appropriate for their proposed research? (maximum 100 words) (5 marks)

20. What qualitative analysis approach would you recommend for this research, and why would you recommend this approach? You should cite relevant literature supporting your choice. (maximum 100 words)

Appendix 1- Experimental data set

Participant number Child’s pain score Parental behavior group Parental catastrophizing score

1 30 Distraction 5

2 35 Distraction 7

3 45 Distraction 11

4 40 Distraction 12

5 50 Distraction 15

6 35 Distraction 10

7 55 Distraction 13

8 25 Distraction 3

9 30 Distraction 8

10 45 Distraction 18

11 40 Distraction 13

12 50 Distraction 16

13 50 Emotional support 7

14 45 Emotional support 15

15 60 Emotional support 19

16 65 Emotional support 18

17 65 Emotional support 17

18 55 Emotional support 13

19 60 Emotional support 14

20 45 Emotional support 11

21 40 Emotional support 13

22 60 Emotional support 17

23 60 Emotional support 15

24 50 Emotional support 8