Schizophrenia is a complex disorder involving dysregulation of multiple pathways in its pathophysiology. Dopaminergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter systems are affected in schizophrenia and interactions between these receptors contribute to the pathophysiology of the disease.

The exact pathophysiology of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. The most commonly supported theories are the dopamine hypothesis and the glutamate hypothesis. Other theories include the specific dysfunction of interneurons, abnormalities in the immune system, abnormalities in myelination, and oxidative stress

.Research suggests schizophrenia may be caused by a change in the level of 2 neurotransmitters: dopamine and serotonin. Some studies indicate an imbalance between the 2 may be the basis of the problem. Others have found a change in the body’s sensitivity to the neurotransmitters is part of the cause of schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia is likely the result of an abnormal developmental trajectory of synapse and circuit formation that ultimately leads to a miswired brain and clinical symptoms. This abnormal developmental trajectory is contributed to by the interaction of thousands of risk genes and multiple environmental risk factors


Pathophysiology: Deranged function in an individual or an organ due to a disease. For example, a pathophysiologic alteration is a change in function as distinguished from a structural defect.