The paper defined CSR as “a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis”.

Relevant research topics in CSR and corporate sustainability suggested by Archie Carroll

  • Corporate Social Performance.
  • Creating Shared Value (CSV)
  • Corporate Citizenship.
  • Corporations and Business Purpose.
  • Ethics and Boards of Directors.
  • Business-Government Interactions

Corporate social responsibility is traditionally broken into four categories: environmental, philanthropic, ethical, and economic responsibility


Some of the most common examples of CSR include:

  • Reducing carbon footprints.
  • Improving labor policies.
  • Participating in fairtrade.
  • Diversity, equity and inclusion.
  • Charitable global giving.
  • Community and virtual volunteering.
  • Corporate policies that benefit the environment.
  • Socially and environmentally conscious investment