Choose the answer that best addresses the question posed.


Negotiators can succeed if they can predict when and how their adversary might deviate from a rational pattern during negotiations. Imagine you are the vendor for a major company. 

The company wants a discount and is threatening to go to a competing firm.

 You emphasize that it would be a shame, since the company already invested millions with your firm. Which cognitive bias are you using?




Fixed-sum outcomes


Escalation of commitment


Overreliance on readily available information